Saturday, January 18, 2020
Film and TV Essay (U31, U33) Unit 31 Ã¢â¬Å"Film editing is now something almost everyone can do at a simple level and enjoy it, but to take it to a higher level require teh dedication and persistence that any art form does. Ã¢â¬ Walter Murch The History Of Editing (L. O. 1. 1. , L. O. 1. 2. ) Editing in early cinema was very basic and linear yet despite this it must have been one of the most exciting times in the film industry. Filmmakers had all the creative freedom at their finger tips as no one had created any rules or knew how to shoot a movie.The pioneers of film are the Lumiere brothers who were the first people to ever record moving images from a camera in 1895. The simplicity of their first movie was incredible with a camera set outside a factory and workers streaming out of the front door. It was in black and white, had no sound and had no cuts and yet thousands of people flooded to the cinema to see these images. However from this one simple film came every single mo tion picture and television show so their innovation should never be forgotten.In the years to follow came the birth of the first genres with Ã¢â¬Å"A Trip To The MoonÃ¢â¬ , the first Sc-Fi shot in 1902 and directed by Georges Melies. It was based on H. G. Wells Ã¢â¬Å"The First Men In The MoonÃ¢â¬ . It was followed in 1903 by Edwin S. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Train RobberyÃ¢â¬ , the first Western. Even in this short time period cinema had evolved significantly to include cuts, animation, visual effects and even colour in certain frames although this had to be achieved by manually painting on to the actual film strip.At this stage film was becoming rapidly more popular with the general public and by the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s Hollywood started creating some of the first Ã¢â¬Å"Classic HollywoodÃ¢â¬ motion pictures we know today, such as Howard HawksÃ¢â¬â¢ 1932 Ã¢â¬Å"ScarfaceÃ¢â¬ . The introduction of Hollywood cinema dramatically increased the size that a film product ion could be and with increased investment it meant more actors, bigger production teams and more distribution to the rest of the world. If you look back at the timeline of cinema from 1895-present (2013) and find the halfway point you could argue that cinema had reached its peak in the form of AlfredHitchcock. Alfred Hitchcock is arguably the most famous and influential directors of all time. His masterpiece, the 1960 Ã¢â¬Å"PsychoÃ¢â¬ , created the first movie that used editing to truly terrify people, using long tracking shots with ominous music to draw the audience into the scene before using quick cuts at the peak of suspense to send movie goers running out of the cinema in terror. After this came the post modernist era. This saw directors such as Quentin Tarantino, Ridley Scott and Martin Scorsese break onto to the scene. However another leviathan of cinema emerged in this period in the form of Steven Spielberg.The advances in technology meant that cinema was becoming more d igital so CGI started to play a big factor in all mainstream Hollywood editing and Spielberg utilized this in his films such as Ã¢â¬Å"Jurassic ParkÃ¢â¬ (1993) Ã¢â¬Å"Saving Private RyanÃ¢â¬ (1998) and Ã¢â¬Å"Indiana Jones Temple Of DoomÃ¢â¬ (1984) with millions of dollars spent in post production effects. Finally we have everything in the present day. Editing in modern cinema is playing a bigger and bigger factor in films with many of todays blockbusters seeing quick cuts with multiple cameras and a larger amount of footage being shot in-front of a green screen.The Development Of Genre Specific Editing (L. O. 1. 2. , L. O. 1. 3. ) Why is it every genre has a different feel to it? How can you tell that you are watching a western and not a comedy? The main answer is editing. Editing is the most crucial factor in deciding the pace of the film. Different techniques and styles are used in the editing of each individual genre. This is because each genre brings with it different audiences who want different forms of entertainment.For example people who enjoy Romantic Comedies tend to be teenagers want to be filled with a sense of happiness and probably just want a film that is not too intense and is easy to follow yet thoroughly enjoyable. So with this knowledge it is not surprising that Romantic Comedies are famous for young glamorous actors, having a soundtrack with current music fresh from the charts, shooting in non treating locations and having basic cuts that are neither too long or too short. It is interesting to compare this to a Thriller. Thrillers tend to attract males from 15 years and over.People who watch Thrillers want to be entertained by a hero protagonist fighting against some sort of evil enemy in exotic countries with lots of violence and action. So editors of thrillers will know to include quick cuts using multiple cameras, using an exciting, usually orchestral, soundtrack and putting in multiple sound and visual effects of explosions an d car chases. Having an editor with a very clear grasp of how to change their style of editing depending upon the genre of the film is vital in any production crew. Unit 33 Ã¢â¬Å"The essence of cinema is editing.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the combination of what can be extraordinary images of people during emotional momentsÃ¢â¬â¢ or images in a general sense, put together in a kind of alchemyÃ¢â¬ Francis Ford Coppola TV Production Editing (L. O. 1. 1. , L. O. 1. 2. ) Breaking Bad Ã¢â¬ This is the first day of the rest of your life, but what kind of life will it be, huh? Will it be a life of fear, of Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, no no no I can't do thisÃ¢â¬ ? Of never once believing in yourself? Ã¢â¬ Walter White Walter White is a ordinary High School Chemistry teacher that has been diagnosed with lung cancer and wants something to leave for his family.This and the want to live on the wild side makes him a meth drug lord. Ã¢â¬ Breaking bad has been hailed by critics as one of the best TV series' ever created. Ã¢â¬Å"Breaking BadÃ¢â¬ increases that cognitive dissonance, turning some viewers into not merely fans but enablers. Ã¢â¬ Emily Nussbaum. Breaking Bad blurs the lines between what you feel is just and good and breaks the conventions of a TV show based round a family where it it is clear to see that no one is perfect and everyone has individual flaws that create their character. This is a very deliberate decision that Executive Producer and creator Vince Gilligan made.Watching Breaking Bad you rarely feel that you are looking at famous Hollywood actors but instead real people that have found themselves in terrible situations. This is something that also comes off often in the editing as during scenes of character development or scenes with deep emotions there is no score playing in the background no real sound coming from anywhere apart from the space that the character is occupying with very few cuts with little camera movement so the audience can capture the real emotion of the situation. This Ã¢â¬ËlackÃ¢â¬â¢ of editing can be more effective than having many different camera angles.This editing technique fits well into the Crime Drama genre well as it does not distract from the plot which is often complicated which means the audience has a much better chance of following the and therefore enjoying the storyline more. However throughout the episodes we also see evidence of very creative and artist editing and camera work. this is most effective in the montage sequences were meth is being cooked. This way the audience gets a brief glimpse into how complex the method is and get a good feel of the time it takes to make the meth without having to sit through each individual stage and watch the whole process.There is no doubt in my mind that Breaking Bad will go down in history as one of the greatest TV Programs of all time. The absence of obvious editing makes it feel like you are actually in the scenes with the characters living their emotions. Vince Gilligan's style of storytelling fits perfectly with the way he has chosen to edit this production. He has brought a new feel to the Crime Drama. One that makes you feel that even the most ordinary person can become extraordinary if they believe in what they have and they have a plan to back it up. The Wire Ã¢â¬Å"A life, Jimmy, you know what that is?It's the s**t that happens while you're waiting for moments that never come. Ã¢â¬ Freamon The plot and storyline of The Wire is so clever and captivating that you can actually do a degree in it. Many who claim to be The Wire fans will argue that there has never been nor ever will be a better TV program made. And with the captivating storyline, emotionally complex yet lovable characters it is hard to argue otherwise. Like Breaking Bad, The Wire is a Crime Drama so similarly there is a lot of intricate dialogue which focuses heavily on character development and plot development.However unlike Vince Gilligan David Sim on has decided to edit his clips more heavily. There are scenes that defiantly have few cut so the audience can understand the emotions that are occurring in the scene. How it differs from Breaking Bad by also looking closely at the complex relationships that many of the characters have whether they be in the work place, in the pub or at home. To edit these scenes David Simon decided to cut between over the shoulder MCUÃ¢â¬â¢s. I feel this was a better way to edit these clips then just long uncut shots as it gives the feel that the people in the scene are interacting with each other more.Also it fits well with some of the witty comebacks that have been written into the script as people retort to any allegations being made against them. As the series progresses we see how relationships are made and broken down by the pressure that the characters find themselves in. it is interesting to see how the strength of the relationship that the characters have with each other on screen effec ts the editing. For example if a characters relationship is good we see less cuts between cameras. This helps the audience feel the comfort the two have with each other and how it is a very unthreatening scene.If the two characters on screen have a poor or hostile relationship you will notice that more cuts are brought in to show the anger or disgust on each characters face. However having quick cuts between cameras does not always mean that the relationship that the two characters have is poor, it can be quite the opposite as quick cuts accompanied with quirky or cheery music in the background can show that the characters are having a good time. As far as the sound in The Wire goes its again pretty minimal with not too many special sound effects and no unnecessary score.What it does do how ever is use a very clever diversity of Jazz and Rock songs throughout the entirety of each episode. David Simon chose very specific songs to try and create the feel that you were in the Baltimore area. Giving a very realistic and authentic feel to the footage you were seeing. This technique really puts the audience in the scene as they can relate the music playing to what is happening in the scene. The Wires success lies in showing how the relationships between people and institutions develop and David Simon has done a fantastic job of showing that through his editing. Film Production Editing (L. O. . 1. , L. O. 1. 2. ) Reservoir Dogs Ã¢â¬ I don't wanna kill anybody. But if I gotta get out that door, and you're standing in my way, one way or the other, you're gettin' outta my way. Ã¢â¬ Mr. White In my mind Reservoir Dogs is TarantinoÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpiece. It is one of my all time favorite films and a large part of its popularity is the control of its pace. Reservoir Dogs was edited by Sally Menke who was famous for working along side Quentin Tarantino to create some of his great motion pictures including Inglorious Bastards and Pulp Fiction. When you compare these t hree films together it is obvious they have the same editor.We see the same long uncut tracking and panning shots in all three of these films. As far as genre specific-editing, Sally Menke has tried to use editing techniques to utilize the great and enjoyable aspects of a gangster film. For example to draw the audiences attention to the intricate dialogue and complex plot we see long uncut shots so we donÃ¢â¬â¢t get distracted by too many different camera angles. This is a technique used across may genres but perhaps used most effectively in the gangster genre as the long uncut shots gives the audience time to read the expressions seen across the faces of all the characters as their story unfolds.Reservoir Dogs like many other gangsters have very long and wordy scripts. This means that the main audio focus will be on the dialogue between characters as the audience explores the mind set of these gangsters. However an editing technique that we find in all of TarintinoÃ¢â¬â¢s movie s is associating characters to songs and how it makes the audience think more deeply about what they think these criminals often showing a more human side to them that people can relate to. This is most evident in the torture scene between Mr.Blonde and the police officer when just before we see Mr. Blonde about to mutilate and then set fire to the police officer he puts on the radio and starts to dance. I think Reservoir Dogs is such a great film as unlike many films today Tarintino understands that over editing takes away from the enjoyment of the cinema experience. I feel that directors over edit because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t trust the look and substance of the material they already have so they feel the need to add cheap effects and try to came up with as many cuts between artistic shots as possible.However it may be this reason that so many gangsters have been edited successfully as the characters, emotion and narrative is usually so interesting that it could captivate an audience even if there was no visuals whatsoever. Alien Ã¢â¬Å"Final report of the commercial starship Nostromo, third officer reporting. The other members of the crew, Kane, Lambert, Parker, Brett, Ash and Captain Dallas, are dead. Cargo and ship destroyed. I should reach the frontier in about six weeks. With a little luck, the network will pick me up.This is Ripley, last survivor of the Nostromo, signing off. Ã¢â¬ Ripley Like Quentin Tarantino, Ridley Scott used the same editor (Terry Rawlings) in his early career and it was with the assistance of Terry Rawlings that he was able to create some of his great masterpieces such as Bladerunner, Legend and arguably most famously Alien. Looking at TerryÃ¢â¬â¢s career we can see that he a real specialist in editing tense movies full of suspense. It is probably because of this that Ridley Scott chose him to be editor of Alien.AlienÃ¢â¬â¢s success must be put down partly to how masterfully it was edited, keeping the audience on the edge of their seats and making sure their hearts never left their mouths. It was a challenge to edit Alien as due to the lack of Effective CGI at the time it had to be shot using real props and costumes. However this meant that showing too much of the Alien for an extended length of time would reveal to the audience how fake the costume looked. For suspense and tension to reach their peak only brief glimpses of the Alien could be seen at any one time.This is a very deliberate editing technique as if the audience can not see the creature they have no idea how gruesome or horrifying it really could be mean their imaginations will run wild and they will create their own monster in their mind which is a much more terrifying thought than simply it being shown within the first 20 minutes of the film. Another Element which is interesting to note in Alien is the use of sound and music to create the suspense that you feel the whole way through the movie.One of the most important things you can reme mber when editing a movie is that its not always how much sound you use but when you chose to use it. Alien is a prime example of this as Ridley deliberately just had the diagetic sound that you saw through the camera in the background instead of adding a score and multiple sound effects. This isa very clever editing technique as he recognized that humans are most uncomorftanble when they are bathed in silence. This lack of sound means that the audience tension reaches a peak just before the Alien appears when the human fear of loud noises kicks in.Upon the reveal of the Alien there would be a sudden burst of sound and music. We hear the screech from the Alien the screams for the crew and a large orchestra starting to play in the background. The combination of these two things is one of the most used editing techniques in the horror genre. It is used to disorientate the audience to make the feel as vulnerable as possible to create maximum terror. Alien is the perfect template of how to edit a Sc-Fi Horror. The combination of the visual and audio techniques combine to make one of the most watched horrors of all time.Conclusion In investigating I have discovered how editing has played such a vital role in the creation of some of the greatest TV and Film Productions ever made. Being an editor may not be the most glamorous job in Hollywood but after writing this essay I now understand that it is one of the most important. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  Walter Murch Ã¢â¬â 1983  Francis Ford Coppola Ã¢â¬â 1983  A No-Rough-Stuff Type Deal Season 1 Episode 7  Emily Nussbaum Ã¢â¬â The New Yorker August 27th 2012  The Wire Season 1 Episode 8  Reservoir Dogs 1992  Alien 1979
Friday, January 10, 2020
Humanity is facing many problems like poverty, diseases, violence, homicide, economic recession, and many other miseries, which cause fear in a blissful soul. Since money buys the means that give comfort and happiness to a human, the people are striving either to sustain the basic needs of livelihood, or to expand their existing financial kingdom. However, during their struggle for earning money, some people try to deceive others, and cause sorrow to the bereaved persons. In doing so, although they might have gained more money, but their act of deceit reverts to them, and they also suffer some kind of loss- money, health, happiness, or peace of mind. It is the law of nature that we reap what we sow. If somebody causes pain to a fellow human, then the same pain will return to the miscreant. Can anybody get happiness by snatching happiness from others? Can anybody prosper by cheating somebody through cunning means? It can be seen from the ongoing economic recession that big businesses, who had committed fraud and deception, collapsed eventually. It is true that deceptive acts lead to disaster, foreclosures, layoffs, and suffering. The manipulations in the account statements, which were done by well-paid executives, not only deceived the investors, but also caused grief to the fraudsters, who lost billions of dollars during the slump. Hence, my advice to humanity is that one should never deceive somebody. Relations and economy prosper on mutual faith, and they perish if deception becomes the means of attaining them. Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba preaches Ã¢â¬Å"Love all, serve all,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Help ever, hurt never. Ã¢â¬ Since we all are humans, and we are liable to commit errors, we should forgive others for their unintentional mistakes, and always encourage them to improve their performances. In a positive work environment, workers are motivated to produce the best results, and they try to excel through their sincerity and diligence. Please do not deceive anybody for your own benefit.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
What are the hot issues now being debated among your friends online or at your school: a new course requirement? a revision of the honor code? a proposal to construct a new recreation center or shut down a notorious nightspot? As you think about possible topics for your argument assignment, consider issues being discussed by columnists in the local newspaper or by your classmates in the snack bar. Then prepare to explore one of these issues, examining both sides of the argument before you outline your own position. Discovering an Issue to Argue About Probably the best way to get started on an argumentative essay, whether youre working on your own or with others, is to list several possible topics for this project. Jot down as many current issues that you can think of, even if you havent yet formed strong opinions about them. Just make sure that they are issues--matters open to discussion and debate. For example, Cheating on Exams is hardly an issue: few would dispute that cheating is wrong. More controversial, however, would be a proposal that students caught cheating should automatically be dismissed from school. As you list possible topics, keep in mind that your eventual goal is not simply to vent your feelings on an issue but to support your views with valid information. For this reason, you might want to steer clear of topics that are highly charged with emotion or just too complicated to be dealt with in a short essay--topics such as capital punishment, for instance, or the war in Afghanistan. Of course, this doesnt mean that you have to restrict yourself to trivial issues or to ones that you care nothing about. Rather, it means that you should consider topics you know something about and are prepared to deal with thoughtfully in a short essay of 500 or 600 words. A well-supported argument on the need for a campus child-care center, for instance, would probably be more effective than a collection of unsupported opinions on the need for free, universal child-care services in the United States. Finally, if you still find yourself at a loss for what to argue about, check out this list of 40 Writing Topics: Argument and Persuasion. Exploring an Issue Once you have listed several possible topics, select one that appeals to you, and freewrite on this issue for ten or fifteen minutes. Put down some background information, your own views on the subject, and any opinions you have heard from others. You might then want to join a few other students in a brainstorming session: invite ideas on both sides of each issue you consider, and list them in separate columns. As an example, the table below contains notes taken during a brainstorming session on a proposal that students should not be required to take physical-education courses. As you can see, some of the points are repetitious, and some may appear more convincing than others. As in any good brainstorming session, ideas have been proposed, not judged (that comes later). By first exploring your topic in this way, considering both sides of the issue, you should find it easier to focus and plan your argument in succeeding stages of the writing process. Proposal: Physical Education Courses Should Not Be Required PRO (Support Proposal) CON (Oppose Proposal) PE grades unfairly lower the GPAs of some good students Physical fitness is a critical part of education: "A sound mind in a sound body." Students should exercise on their own time, not for credit. Students need an occasional break from lectures, textbook, and exams. School is for study, not play. A few hours of PE courses never hurt anybody. One gym course can't turn a poor athlete into a good one. What good is improving your mind if your body is going to pieces? Do taxpayers realize that they are paying for students to bowl and play badminton? PE courses teach some valuable social skills. PE courses can be dangerous. Most students enjoy taking PE courses. Ã Focusing an Argument Focusing an argument begins with taking a clear stand on the issue. See if you can express your point of view in a one-sentence proposal, such as the following: Students should (or should not) be required to pay for a campus parking permit.U.S. citizens should (or should not) be allowed to cast their ballots online in all local, state, and national elections.Cell phones should (or should not) be banned in all classrooms. Of course, as you gather more information and develop your argument, youre quite likely to reword your proposal or even change your position on the issue. For now, though, this simple proposal statement will guide you in planning your approach. Planning an Argument Planning the argument means deciding on the three or four points that best support your proposal. You may find these points in the lists you have already drawn up, or you may combine certain points from these lists to form new ones. Compare the points below with the ones given earlier on the issue of required physical-education courses: Proposal: Students should not be required to take physical-education courses. Although physical fitness is important for everyone, it can be achieved better through extracurricular activities than in required physical-education courses.Grades in physical-education courses may have a harmful effect on the GPAs of students who are academically strong but physically challenged.For students who are not athletically inclined, physical-education courses can be humiliating and even dangerous. Notice how the writer has drawn on both of his original lists, pro and con, to develop this three-point plan. Likewise, you may support a proposal by arguing against an opposing view as well as by arguing for your own. As you draw up your list of key arguments, start thinking ahead to the next step, in which you must support each of these observations with specific facts and examples. In other words, you must be prepared to prove your points. If youre not ready to do that, you should explore your topic further, perhaps in a follow-up brainstorming session, before researching your topic online or in the library. Remember that feeling strongly about an issue does not automatically enable you to argue about it effectively. You need to be able to back up your points clearly and convincingly with up-to-date, accurate information. Practice: Exploring Both Sides of the Issue Either on your own or in a brainstorming session with others, explore at least five of the following issues. Jot down as many supporting points as you can, both in favor of the proposal and in opposition to it. Final grades should be eliminated in all courses and replaced by grades of pass or fail.A year of national service with minimum-wage pay should be required of all 18-year-olds in the United States.States should be allowed to collect taxes on all items sold over the Internet.The production and sale of cigarettes should be made illegal.People should be allowed the freedom to exchange music files online without having to pay fees to a subscription service.To encourage people to maintain healthy eating habits, foods with a high-fat content and little nutritional value should carry a special junk tax.Parents should discourage their young children from watching television on weekdays.Students should have complete freedom to select their own courses.
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
All businesses strive to be effective and efficient. Whilst the hallmark of a capitalist economy is self-interest and competition, cooperation is also necessary in order to further efficiency and productivity. For a business to be successful, the people within need to develop relationships amongst each other as well as outside the organization in order to be able to work with one another. These relationships are a function of trust. Trust is the reliance on the integrity, ability, or character of a person or thing. Therefore building trust is a vital step towards maintaining and promoting business efficiency. However, in terms of business ethics, the sole purpose of the use of trust is to promote business efficiency. Customers and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦While loyalty is not easily quantifiable, and thus does not show up in a corporate ledger, it will affect the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall performance.Ã¢â¬ Because trust is a vital part of loyalty, it follows that creating trust amongst employees by treating them respectfully is likely to result in improved company performance and efficiency. This once again provides a quantifiable measure for trust in a capitalist economy. Trust is also dependent upon not lying. Companies that lie about their product are in essence diminishing the trust established among their customers and the community. This can be anything from providing misleading information about their products in advertisements or stating obvious falsehoods . For example, an obvious falsehood would be a deodorant company that claims that the user of the product is likely to attract women as a result of the product itself. Lying is always wrong because it undermines the trust that makes telling the truth useful. If no one could be Ã¢â¬ËtrustedÃ¢â¬â¢, and everyone lied about what they did, the business world would fall apart quickly as a business could not be assured of any one elseÃ¢â¬â¢s services. A business would not be able to do something as simple as take a loan out of a bank to afford its various activities. This is because banks would not trusting a business to repay the loan as in a capitalist economy paying back a loan would not be in a businessÃ¢â¬â¢ self interest. Thus in such an environment, all of business comes to aShow MoreRelatedEssay Trust In Business Is A Means For Greater Business Efficiency1860 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesorder to further efficiency and productivity. For a business to be successful, the people within need to develop relationships amongst each other as well as outside the organization in order to be able to work with one another. These relationships are a function of trust. 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Tuesday, December 17, 2019
On June 17, 1903 the Ford Motor Company was organized. The date is the day the deal started for Henry Ford not because the company had his name, the day all his hard work would start to payoff. To look at the deal from just one day would not do justice to the brilliant way and intertwined ways Henry Ford took the world by storm. From the start in FordÃ¢â¬â¢s garage to the offices of lawyers, and then on to control of the largest automotive companies in the world one can see the deal was just a key to Mr. FordÃ¢â¬â¢s future. To start, Henry Ford was born on a family farm during the Civil War. This is what would drive Mr. Ford; not wanting to be a farmer and wanting to work on machinery. Unsatisfied with farm work, Ford left home the following year, at the age of 16, to take an apprenticeship as a machinist in Detroit. In the years that followed, he would learn to skillfully operate and service steam engines, and would also study bookkeeping. Later Henry Ford would work for the Ed ison Lighting Company as an engineer, later Ford would become chief engineer. Ford got a chance to meet Thomas Edison and showed Edison his plans for his first horseless carriage. This meeting would lead to a friendship that would help Ford when designing his assembly line. Another account of FordÃ¢â¬â¢s early years says, Ã¢â¬Å"In 1879 he left the farm to become an apprentice at the Michigan Car Company, a manufacturer of railroad cars in Detroit. Over the next two-and-one-half years he held several similar jobs,Show MoreRelatedThe Success Of Henry Ford1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesis a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success.Ã¢â¬ -Henry Ford. This quote was one of the key ideas that led him to success. Henry Ford went from working on his family s farm to mass manufacturing cars. Early on Henry Ford realized his goal in life, he has countless achievements, and has a forever lasting legacy. 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Profit of $258 million, or 13 cents per share, from continuing operations excluding special items. There was a significant year-over-year improvement for all automotive operations. Ford Motor Credit pre-tax profit of $112 million. Cost reductions of $600 million; $1.1 billion through the first half of 2007. There was automotiveRead MoreCase Study of Ford Motor Company1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Tim Randall Ford Motor Company has been recognized as one of the worlds most ethical companies by the Ethisphere Institute, a leading business ethics think tank (Ford Motor Company.com. Home Page. 2012. PP. 1). This 2010 award of excellence highlights a fundamental transformation for a company that in the mid-1970s was immersed in a scandal regarding the safety of its Ford Pinto sub-compact. 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Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about Internet of things. Answer: Introduction There have been massive technological advancements that have taken place in the recent years. One of the contributions of technology to the world is Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is defined as the intern-connection of several elements such as gadgets, electrical appliances, databases, networks etc. with the aid of the Internet to perform a particular task or activity. There are several IoT applications that have been developed and a lot of research and development work is in progress in the same area (Gigli Koo, 2011). Microsoft and Schneider Electric have also collaborated with each other on Kiwi IoT project. Problem Definition Agriculture is one of the prime activities that are carried out in most parts of the world. It makes use of over seventy percent of the fresh water that is currently available. In order to optimize the use of water, Waterforce came up with the cloud based IoT solution that comprises of advanced analytics and remote controls to carry out sustainable farming (Itbrief, 2017). Application of IoT in Agriculture Solution Features of Kiwi IoT Project The primary features of the project are as listed below:Lightweight and scalable cloud based solution for agricultureAbility to provide mobile capabilities to the usersAnalysis of watering plantsMapping with the regulatory policies to ensure hundred percent complianceRemote monitoring of water usage and storageFrequent data gathering and analysis to estimate the weather conditionsSimple adjustments for irrigation activities as per the weather conditionsAutomatic and frequent data back-ups for disaster recoveryAnalysis of the spot prices Smart farming through SCADAFarm Working of the Project SCADAfarm is an IoT agricultural solution that has been developed by Waterforce, a kiwi water management, and irrigation organization. The solution has been created with the collaboration of Schneider Electric using the IoT platform provided by Microsoft Azure. The solution is one of the additions in the regime of sustainable agriculture for the conservation of resources at a global level. Microsoft IoT Hub services are integrated with the Schneider Electric software and hardware along with various other elements such as cloud technologies, industrial sensors and controls, and variable speed drivers to come up with the SCADAfarm as an IoT solution for agriculture (Sah, 2016). It enhances the agricultural practices that are carried out and also adds to the conservation of environmental resources. Pros and Cons There are huge farms that are required to be managed in various parts of the world. Canterbury Plains is one such area that is one of the largest areas of flat land in New Zealand. The project has been implemented on several farms in the area. There is a lot of effort that is required to put in for the management and execution of operations on the farm. There is intense water logistics that involved along with pumping uphill to maintain steep terraces along with the tracking of the usage in order to comply with the environmental guidelines (Ma, Yang Wang, 2017). Use of manual practices and traditional tools to carry out agricultural activities is no longer applicable to achieve the objective of sustainable farming for the conservation of resources. Also, the management of these farms is also not easy with the use of existing tools and practices. SCADAfarm was, therefore, developed to bring a solution to all of these problems and issues (Ning Liu, 2012). The issues associated with management of the farms and agricultural operations are addressed by the Kiwi IoT project by fulfilling the following activities: Remote monitoring of the irrigation and pumps that are set up in the farms Remote operations of the irrigation and pumps Customization of sprinklers for the individual crops Customization abilities on the basis of the soil type and level of moisture Easy incorporation of real-time data gathered from the weather station that allows convenient adjustment of irrigation as per the weather conditions Conclusion Sustainable farming and conservation of resources have become necessary to put a check on the rapid depletion of resources in the current times. The use of technology in such areas can lead to the successful achievement of the objectives. SCADAfarm is one of the IoT solutions that have been developed in order to achieve the objective of resource conservation and to make the agricultural activities easier (Razzaque, Milojevic-Jevric, Palade Clarke, 2016). It is necessary for the developers and business organizations to come up with increased number of IoT projects and solutions in order to come at par with technology. Also, the use and application of such solutions shall be as per the requirements and specifications. References Gigli, M., Koo, S. (2011). Internet of Things: Services and Applications Categorization. Advances In Internet Of Things, 01(02), 27-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2011.12004 Itbrief. (2017). Microsoft Schneider Electric partner on Kiwi IOT project. Itbrief.co.nz. Retrieved 10 August 2017, from https://itbrief.co.nz/story/microsoft-schneider-electric-partner-kiwi-iot-project/ Ma, Q., Yang, B., Wang, J. (2017). Application of Internet of Things in Urban Waterlogging Prevention Management System. Advances In Internet Of Things, 07(01), 1-9. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2017.71001 Ning, H., Liu, H. (2012). Cyber-Physical-Social Based Security Architecture for Future Internet of Things. Advances In Internet Of Things, 02(01), 1-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2012.21001 Razzaque, M., Milojevic-Jevric, M., Palade, A., Clarke, S. (2016). Middleware for Internet of Things: A Survey. IEEE Internet Of Things Journal, 3(1), 70-95. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2015.2498900 Sah, P. (2016). Saving Environment Using Internet of Things: Challenges and the Possibilities. Advances In Internet Of Things, 06(04), 55-64. https://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2016.64004
Sunday, December 1, 2019
The Walt Disney Corporation Essay The Walt Disney Corporation is one of the largest mass media companies in the world owning TV and radio networks, Internet sites, theatres, theme parks, music studios, magazines etc. They publish childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s books, produce cartoons, computer software, and toys among many other things. For more than 70 years Disney animated films have been a popular form of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s entertainment and part of many childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives worldwide. It is not an exaggeration to say that these films have also contributed to and influenced the shaping of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s values, beliefs and imagination. Therefore, being one of the most dominant storytellers and having such a huge influence on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s culture in general, the Disney Company and the array of images and stereotypes they offer to the public should be approached critically and analysed.In this essay I will be focusing on the female gender stereotypes reinforced in three Disney animated films Snow White and the Seven D warfs, The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast and on the notions of femininity that these films portray. Furthermore, I will be analyzing what kind of effects these particular stereotypes and representations of femininity may produce on girls and young women. Most predominant female gender stereotypes that these films reinforce are the following:1. a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance is valued more than her intellect;2. a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role in society is to be a housewife;3. a woman should get married to find true happiness, and4. a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s life is shaped by male influences.The female characters depicted in these three Disney animated films are very narrowly stereotyped and throughout the entire films constantly hyper sexualized. It can not be said that basically they differ from each other in trying to initiate or actively participate in shaping their destinies, but are merely bystanders, watching as their future unfolds. My stand on this stereotype is that new generations ar e constantly taught to see women as not trying to present themselves as intellectual individuals but simply as pretty faces trying to accomplish their goals in life by using their beauty as their only tool for success.The stereotypical portrayal of young women and the Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology of physical beauty demonstrated in their animated films have not changed since the release of their first animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, in 1937. Snow White was the first Disney Princess to be portrayed in a way that would become characteristic of all Disney Princesses: she had red lips, straight hair, perfect complexion, a skinny body, and a beautiful face. Naturally, she was gifted with a very soft voice enchanting all around her when she sang, whether she was sad or happy. Snow White was so beautiful that her beauty brought her an enemy embodied in her stepmother, who, in disguise, fed her with a poisoned apple which put her into a deep slumber. The fairest one of al l had her life spared by the hunter simply because she was too beautiful to be killed (Wachutka, 2007). The female images presented in this film can be harmful to the young women since they put emphasis on the false idea that the greatest quality a woman can possess is beauty.Similarly to Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the animated film The Little Mermaid (1989) accentuates the importance of beauty by advising girls through the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s messages that they should sacrifice in order to achieve the perfect body since that is, according to the Disney Company, a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s most important attribute after all. It is not an overstatement to say that the Disney Company implies a physical transformation to be the best way to win a manÃ¢â¬â¢s love. The main protagonist in the film, the mermaid Ariel, is willing to trade her voice, that is, her means of communicating and expressing her intellect and personality for human legs, thus becoming what society wants her to be Ã¢â¬â a s ilent and obedient pretty face. Ariel decides to undergo the process of transformation after Ursula, the evil sea witch and the mastermind behind the idea of ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s trade, convinces Ariel that she need not worry about losing her voice because she will Ã¢â¬Å"have (her) looks, (her) pretty faceÃ¢â¬ , and should Ã¢â¬Å"not underestimate the importance of body language,Ã¢â¬ because Ã¢â¬Å"on land itÃ¢â¬â¢s much preferred for ladies not to say a word; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the one that holds her tongue that gets her manÃ¢â¬ (Clements Musker, 1989).Therefore, it is clear that the film supports the idea that it is not intellect what is valued in a woman in society, but her pleasing appearance and obedience, the qualities which are bound to Ã¢â¬Ëget her a manÃ¢â¬â¢. ArielÃ¢â¬â¢s body supports the same idea, teaching girls from an early age that they have to have a tiny waist if they want to be pretty. Even Ursula, when transforming to a human in an attempt to steal Prince Er icÃ¢â¬â¢s love, does so by becoming a tall and slender girl with red lips, straight hair and perfect complexion, which are the same characteristics that Snow White possesses.The Disney Company further underestimates the importance of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s intellect in the scene where Arial having sung about her aspirations for the intellectual pursuit of the human knowledge swiftly turns her thoughts towards Prince Eric. Her high aspirations are demonstrated in the lyrics of the song Ã¢â¬ËPart of Your WorldÃ¢â¬â¢ which Ariel sings while in her hidden cavern which holds all of her treasures: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m ready to know what the people know, ask them my questions and get some answers What is a fire and why does it burn?Ã¢â¬ (Clements Musker, 1989).In Beauty and the Beast (1991) it is BelleÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty and loveliness that tame the BeastÃ¢â¬â¢s savagery. The confirmation for this statement is the fact that the kindness and understanding of his household staff were not eno ugh to stop his terrorizing and violent behaviour. The only person who could put things right was Belle. The Disney Company once again emphasizes that if a woman is pretty enough and sweet enough, she could transform an abusive man into her prince forever. According to Maio (1998), this stereotypically implies that in real life Ã¢â¬Å"women are responsible for controlling male anger and violence.Ã¢â¬ It is important to call attention to another symbolism in this film. Unlike any other Disney Princess, Belle is gifted with a passion for reading. Her hopes and aspirations for constant advancement are accentuated at the beginning of the film where she can be heard repeating the sentence: Ã¢â¬Å"There must be more than this provincial life.Ã¢â¬ (Trousdale Wise, 1991) Yet, the Disney Company could not allow Belle to be Ã¢â¬Å"too intelligentÃ¢â¬ . They needed to clarify to the viewers that the books she was reading were just an easy read, pointing out that her favourite book is a bout Ã¢â¬Å"far-off places, daring sword fights, magic spells, and a prince in disguiseÃ¢â¬ (Trousdale Wise, 1991). A prince in disguise is, of course, the most important link in the chain here, as the story itself will prove. Belle suggests this by stating that her favourite part of that book is Ã¢â¬Å"where she (the character of the book sheÃ¢â¬â¢s reading) meets Prince Charming.Ã¢â¬ (Trousdale Wise, 1991)As seen in these examples, the flat portrayal of young women, not reflecting what females really are and what their true goals in life should be, creates the false representation of the notion of femininity which can have a strong impact on young girls. Bearing in mind the fact that girls at the very young age try to understand what being a woman really means and how they should behave when they grow up, I find that the effects these films can have on them can be quite negative, instilling a false system of believes about the values a woman should possess.It is clear th at, on the example of both Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) and Beauty and the Beast (1991), there is a shortage of diverse jobs that can be ascribed to women. Actually, the female characters are not even given the choice of the kind of careers they could pursue and strive to accomplish during the films. Apparently, it seemed perfectly Ã¢â¬ËnaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ for the Disney Company to decide upon Ã¢â¬Ëthe careerÃ¢â¬â¢ of a housewife for their Ã¢â¬ËPrincessesÃ¢â¬â¢ to follow. Here, it is quite evident that the only reason for this decision was the promotion of a stereotype that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s natural abilities are those of a Ã¢â¬Ëhouse servantÃ¢â¬â¢ and nothing else.The film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) clearly promotes the stereotype that women are Ã¢â¬Å"natural-born happy homemakers who live in a state of suspended liveliness until a man gives them a lifeÃ¢â¬ (Maio, 1998). The moment Snow White enters the dwarfsÃ¢â¬â¢ house she feels a natural urg e to clean it from top to bottom, in spite of the fact that she does not know who lives in it. This way, she highlights that her true talents and worth lie in her abilities to clean and cook. She uses these abilities hoping that the tenants will provide her with accommodation, and, thus, give her more opportunities to cook and clean Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"If you let me stay, Ill keep house for you. Ill wash and sew and sweep and cook.Ã¢â¬ (Hand, Cottrell, Jackson, Morey, Pearce, Sharpsteen, 1937)It is also worth mentioning that Snow White instantly associates the filth and disorder of the house with the idea that whoever lives in the house does not have a mother. In her mind it is as clear as a bell that if they did, it would be their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s role to keep the house in order, since that is a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s true calling in life. In spite of the fact that she enters the house in tiny high heeled shoes, she immediately sets to work to clean it, singing all along as though she has m erely continued her stroll through the woods.In Beauty and the Beast (1991), the Disney Company use the narrow-minded townspeople to typify BelleÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence and strength as eccentric and to demonstrate the general view of society of the position of women. In the lyrics of the song Ã¢â¬ËBelleÃ¢â¬â¢ we are able to witness their gossiping Ã¢â¬Å"The girl is strange, no question, dazed and distracted Never part of any crowd, cause her heads up on some cloud. No denying shes a funny girl, that Belle. With a dreamy, far-off look, and her nose stuck in a book, what a puzzle to the rest of us is Belle.Ã¢â¬ (Trousdale ; Wise, 1991) Her interest in books won her the title of Ã¢â¬Å"a funny girl who has her head in the cloudsÃ¢â¬ . The message which Disney is trying to convey here is that women are not supposed to seek knowledge, because it is not the part they are supposed to play in the society. In the film, the most admired man in the village, Gaston, confronts Belle abo ut her interest in books and clearly illustrates that it is not a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role to be interested in reading and intellectual pursuit when he tells Belle, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not right for a woman to read, soon she starts getting ideas, thinking.Ã¢â¬ In the following dialogue between Belle and Gaston, he explains the role a woman should have in society:Belle: Ã¢â¬Å"What do you know about my dreams, Gaston?Ã¢â¬ Gaston: Ã¢â¬ Plenty! Picture this Ã¢â¬â a rustic hunting lodge, my latest kill roasting on the fire and my little wife massaging my feet, while the little ones play on the floor with the dogs. Well have six or seven strapping boys like me.Ã¢â¬ (Trousdale Wise, 1991)A woman is therefore portrayed as a housewife with her sole occupation being working in the house and taking care of her husband and their children.Through their films the Disney Company provides the young girls with the knowledge that they live in a male-dominated world and tries to instil a beli ef that most a woman can hope for is to fall in love and get married, and even then she would have to rely on her man for assistance in life. In each of these films the only way possible for the female character to be freed from her undesirable future, whether it is being a servant/housewife, living in a poor village or under the sea, was through assistance from her Prince Charming or her father. The Disney Company did not make it possible for its heroines to take a personal action and create a better future for themselves.Instead of emphasizing the process of Snow WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s survival in the film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Disney accentuates the role of the Prince and his contribution to the solution of the question of life and death. This way Snow WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s importance as a character is diminished in comparison with PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s. Snow White helplessly awaits the PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s kiss since no one but him has the power to wake her up. Throughout the film she c onstantly longs for her man to find her and sings about her waiting for him to come so that she can spend an idyllic life in a castle Ã¢â¬Å"Someday my prince will come; someday weÃ¢â¬â¢ll meet againÃ¢â¬ ¦ IÃ¢â¬â¢m wishing for the one I love to find me.Ã¢â¬ (Hand et al., 1937) In the end, her hero indeed comes and bestows her with a life Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ .The Disney Princess Ariel, the main character of The Little Mermaid (1989), is ready to do anything to have handsome Prince Eric fall in love with her. She disobeys her stern but loving father, King Triton, and even makes a bargain with the sea witch to exchange her lovely voice for human legs. What is more, she abandons her perfect life under the sea, her family and friends for a man she hardly even knows. She puts all the effort she can to be part of her princeÃ¢â¬â¢s world, however, the only result which this effort brings is that she merely shifts from being under the control of her father directly to being Prince EricÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. She is never independent.Not having been kissed by Eric before sunset on the third day (after she had gotten her human legs), as was specified in her deal with Ursula, Ariel, for the time being, did not accomplish her dream of staying human and being with Eric. However, at the end of the film, with the help of her father, King Triton, Ariel does achieve her dream. It is only with her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s approval and his magic powers that she obtains human legs again and marries Prince Eric. Therefore, fifty two years after their first animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), the Disney Company did not bother to change the stereotypical ending to their romantic films. For a woman to achieve true happiness and lead a secure life, she has to have a man by her side, whether it is her father or her beloved.In Beauty and the Beast (1991) Gaston is presented as the Ã¢â¬ËspecimenÃ¢â¬â¢ of manliness and depicted as Ã¢â¬Å"tall, dark, strong and h andsome bruteÃ¢â¬ (Trousdale Wise, 1991). Through him the Disney Company reinforce their idea of a conventional kind of masculine identity. When it comes to women he is predominantly vain and rude believing that women are only good for being housewives and mothers. This is observable in his first conversation with Belle:Ã¢â¬Å"Belle, its about time you got your head out of those books and paid attention to more important things me. The whole towns talking about it. Its not right for a woman to read. Soon she starts getting ideas and thinking.Ã¢â¬ (Trousdale ; Wise, 1991)He wants to marry Belle so that he would be able to boast about it and so that she could give him sons whom he could mould at will. In his attempt to dominate and control BelleÃ¢â¬â¢s world he organizes a Ã¢â¬ËsurpriseÃ¢â¬â¢ wedding for him and Belle without having previously proposed to her. He is even ready to go as far as to put her father into an asylum so that he could blackmail her into marrying h im.However, unlike both Ariel and Snow White, Belle does not jump in the arms of the Ã¢â¬Ëfirst opportunityÃ¢â¬â¢ that presents itself. Her refusal to marry Gaston when he tells her that he is yearning to make her his Ã¢â¬Å"little wifeÃ¢â¬ challenges the standard stereotype, though only temporarily and for the purposes of the happy ending. Belle cunningly Ã¢â¬ËservesÃ¢â¬â¢ her refusal to Gaston by telling him what every conceited man wants to hear:Ã¢â¬ I just do not deserve you.Ã¢â¬ (Trousdale ; Wise, 1991) The temporary false illusion which the Disney Company create here, gives us the impression that they truly think how Ã¢â¬Å"women are ultimately in charge of their fateÃ¢â¬ (Wynn, 2010). Nevertheless, this animated film, just like the other two, ends in the same, Disney fashion, with Ã¢â¬Å" and they lived happily ever after!Ã¢â¬ which once again implies that in order to achieve true happiness a woman has to find and marry her perfect man.The stereotypical messages which these films promote about women being incapable of living without having a man in their lives could have a negative influence on young girls denoting that women are weak and that they can only live a satisfactory life with a man by their side.In spite of the fact that many social changes have occurred over the past century improving the position of women within society, it strikes me that there is still a great deal of sexual discrimination against women widely reinforced through gender stereotypes seen in the media. It is my concern that the gender images in Disney animated films, which take a massive part in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, have not evolved to match the changes that have occurred in society. Instead, they remain stereotypical and quite similar over the years recurring in the portrayal of each and every of Disney Princesses. Bearing in mind that Disney films have a significant influence on the development of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the world, an d that the Disney Company actually profits from childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s false illusions, it is every adultÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to take a stand against the moral corruption by spreading a critical attitude towards stereotypes and discrimination present in these films.